Compression Fracture Trauma
Trauma, the result of physical injury to the spine, can lead to compression of one or more vertebrae and injury to the spinal cord or nerves. Vertebrae weakened due to osteoporosis can also fracture (break) with low level trauma.
Degenerative Disc Disease
Degenerative Disc Disease, or DDD, occurs in many people as part of the normal aging process. It is sometimes referred to as arthritis of the back. The condition results from changes in the compressible spinal discs, which act as and shock-absorbing cushions between the vertebrae. With age, the discs can lose fluid, making them less flexible and more compressed, or they can develop tiny tears in the outer layer (annulus), which can cause pain by themselves or allow the jellylike inner layer (nucleus) to bulge, causing pressure on the spinal cord and/or nerves.
Herniated Disc - Cervical
A cervical disc herniation, or cervical radiculopathy, occurs when a small portion of a disc ruptures and causes pressure on spinal nerves in the neck. Small herniations are sometimes called bulges or protrusions, and people experiencing pain from the herniation often describe it as a pinched nerve.
Herniated Disc - Lumbar
A lumbar disc herniation, or lumbar radiculopathy, occurs when a small portion of a disc ruptures and causes pressure on spinal nerves. Small herniations are sometimes called bulges or protrusions, and people experiencing pain from the herniation often describe it as a pinched nerve.
The term osteoarthritis is a general term that describes changes in the joints that occur as a person ages. Osteoarthritis of the spine causes joints along the spine to deteriorate and may result in the formation of bone spurs, cysts, and a narrowing of the disc space.
Osteoporosis is a condition in which bones lose their density and become more porous and fragile. The condition can occur in anyone, but is much more likely in older females, especially after menopause. Diminished bone strength from osteoporosis occurs particularly in the spine and hips.
Sciatica describes an irritation of the sciatic nerve, which is the largest single nerve in the human body. The sciatic nerve begins from several nerves in the lower lumbar vertebrae and the sacrum at the bottom of the spine. These nerves combine to form the sciatic nerve, which travel through the buttocks and down each leg. Sciatic nerve irritation can result from compression of the sciatic nerve roots or from inflammation.
Scoliosis is an abnormal curvature of the spine. A condition known as idiopathic (cause unknown) scoliosis is most common in young adolescent females though it also occurs in boys. This form of scoliosis sometimes progresses slowly and may not be detected until a person is an adult. Scoliosis has a genetic component and frequently runs in families. Certain neuromuscular disorders such as muscular dystrophy can also cause scoliosis. Additionally asymmetric degeneration of the discs between vertebrae can cause scoliosis, particularly in adults.
Spondylolisthesis is condition that occurs when one spinal vertebral body slips forward relative to another. It can occur anywhere along the spine, but typically occurs in the lumbar region. Spondylolisthesis is less common among young children, occurring primarily in adolescents and adults.
Stenosis - Cervical
Spinal stenosis is a condition that causes a narrowing of the spinal canal, which can compress the spinal cord or nerves, resulting in pain, weakness, and/or numbness. When this condition occurs in the neck region it is referred to as cervical stenosis.
Stenosis - Lumber
Spinal stenosis is a condition that causes a narrowing of the spinal canal, which can compress the spinal nerves, resulting in pain. When this condition occurs in the lower back it is referred to as lumbar stenosis.
Tumors that can be either cancerous (malignant) or noncancerous (benign) may occur within the spinal cord or vertebrae. Whether a spinal tumor is cancerous or not, it can cause pressure on the spinal cord and nerves, resulting in pain and potential disability